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ISSN : 1226-3206(Print)
ISSN : (Online)
Studies in Modern Grammar Vol.75 pp.27-81

조사 ‘-가’의 연구*

김 신 회

The Syntax and Semantics of Korean Subject Marker -Ka.

Shin Hoe Kim


Korean particle <-ka> has longbeen simply known as a subject marker. But subjects without <-ka> are veryoften realized in sentences, and they are always accompanied by theconstraint on the correspondence between linear order and thematic role ofthe constituents. Besides, the subjects without <-ka> are sometimes notallowed in accordance with several syntactic/semantic properties of thesubjects and their predicates, in very complicated ways. Traditional view on<-ka> cannot explain these phenomena. In this article, we adopt Bowers(2001)'s PrP Hypothesis and many-folded predicate structure to solve thesepuzzles. It's claimed that [Spec, PrP] is the position of the optionalrealization of <-ka>. The nominal which merges with <-ka> has thetapositions of [ComP, VP] or [Spec, PrP], and its case is licensed in-situthrough agreement under c-command of an Agr <-si/∅> which is placeddirectly after a verb stem as a subject honorific marker, in derivations offinite clauses. The optionally projected morphological features of <-ka>attract the nominal, and the lexical meaning of <-ka>(focus etc.) is addedafter the merge. It is the structurally determined position of <-ka> and thetheta positions varied by the argument structures of different predicates thatexplain why some subjects without <-ka> are not allowed and the linearorders of other constructions are constrained. On the other hand, theprojection and merge of <-ka> is necessary when the nominals are semanticrestrictions of operators of which arguments are propositions. It seems quitenatural that the meaning of <-ka>(focus etc.) is necessarily added to therestrictions because the semantic constituents contain important informationswhich prevent domains of operation from expanding massively.